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Possible Answers: MCL.
Last seen on: –Jonesin’ – Jun 23 2020
Random information on the term “MCL”:
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), comprising about 6% of NHL cases. There are only about 15,000 patients presently in the U.S.
MCL is a subtype of B-cell lymphoma, due to CD5 positive antigen-naive pregerminal center B-cell within the mantle zone that surrounds normal germinal center follicles. MCL cells generally over-express cyclin D1 due to a t(11:14) chromosomal translocation in the DNA. Specifically, the translocation is at t(11;14)(q13;q32).
At diagnosis, patients typically are in their 60s and present to their physician with advanced disease. About half have either fever, night sweats, or unexplained weight loss (over 10% of body weight). Enlarged lymph nodes (for example, a “bump” on the neck, armpits or groin) or splenomegaly are usually present. Bone marrow, liver and GI tract involvement occurs relatively early in the course of the disease.
MCL, like most malignancies, results from the acquisition of a combination of (non-inherited) genetic mutations in somatic cells. This leads to a clonal expansion of malignant B lymphocytes. The factors that initiate the genetic alterations are typically not identifiable, and usually occur in people with no particular risk factors for lymphoma development. Because it is an acquired genetic disorder, MCL is neither communicable nor inheritable. A defining characteristic of MCL is mutation and overexpression of cyclin D1, a cell cycle gene, that contributes to the abnormal proliferation of the malignant cells. MCL cells may also be resistant to drug-induced apoptosis, making them harder to cure with chemotherapy or radiation. Cells affected by MCL proliferate in a nodular or diffuse pattern with two main cytologic variants, typical or blastic. Typical cases are small to intermediate-sized cells with irregular nuclei. Blastic (aka blastoid) variants have intermediate to large-sized cells with finely dispersed chromatin, and are more aggressive in nature. The tumor cells accumulate in the lymphoid system, including lymph nodes and the spleen, with non-useful cells eventually rendering the system dysfunctional. MCL may also replace normal cells in the bone marrow, which impairs normal blood cell production.